Due to the limited reserves of the main energy carriers to date-oil, coal and gas, it is natural to search for alternative renewable fuels produced from biomass of agricultural crops, processing waste, wood, etc.
Scientists and engineers of the State research center for electrification of agriculture developed a technology of light and pyrogenetic destruction of agricultural waste, in particular guzapai, using a solar parabolocylindrical concentrator to produce gaseous, liquid and solid fuels.
Unlike some other crops, currently actively used in many countries of the world for the production of bioethanol, which, according to many international experts, can lead to a food crisis, guzapaya, which is a vegetable residue of cotton harvesting, is a technical crop. Its reserves are estimated at 10 million tons, of which 6 million tons remain in the fields, and only a small part is used as household fuel. In the result the bulk of huapai wraps himself into the ground, polluting the soil and the environment.
The solar high-temperature installation (IED) works as follows: the rays of the sun, falling on a parabolocylindrical mirror, are reflected from it and focused on the linear focal plane, where a reactor with guzapai sawdust is installed. Thus, the concentrated sunlight falling through the walls of quartz glass on a layer of sawdust, heats to a temperature of 400-450°C and decomposes them, eventually converting the organic mass into a vapor-gas mixture, non-condensing and generator gas, resin, charcoal.
The result is a resin, for example, through thermochemical processing to make bio-gasoline, biodiesel. Another product of guzapai processing – charcoal-is used for the production of activated carbon and other compounds, as well as non-ferrous metals, and as fuel for gas-generating cars and tractors. Thus, the presence of a large number of raw materials and economical, energy-saving technology of its reprocessing allow us to count on the early introduction of the invention into production.
The most promising types of agricultural waste for energy use are guzapaya, rice and wheat straw and some other plants.
Medicinal and dietary properties of persimmon fruit have long attracted the attention of physicians, due to its unique chemical properties. It is known, for example, that none of the cultivated plants does not accumulate such a large amount of iodine (except feijoa), as persimmon (up to 0.02 mg per 100 g). Therefore, the fruits of persimmons and the products produced from them are an excellent therapeutic and prophylactic agent for thyroid diseases, atherosclerosis and when the body is exposed to some radionuclides.
There are also anti-inflammatory, tonic properties of persimmon and the therapeutic effect of fruits in boils, anemia, violations of the gastrointestinal tract and cardiovascular system. In this regard, the fruits of persimmons and products of their processing can be successfully used for beriberi and for the prevention of a number of diseases.
It should be noted that during the processing of persimmon fruits, the pleasant Golden-brown color of the pulp changes, and the resulting product acquires an unattractive dark brown color. In our opinion, these features are primarily due to the high content of polyphenolic compounds in persimmon and the high activity of redox enzymes. One way to prevent unwanted changes in the natural color of the fruit during processing is cooking fruit raw materials with the addition of citric acid.
To obtain canned products, persimmon fruits of pomological varieties Hiyakume, Zenji-Maru and Denau sugar, taken at the stage of consumer maturity, were used. The use of fruits in the stage of technical maturity for jam was impractical, since their particles when cooked in sugar syrup become rigid and difficult to chew. Therefore, used for boiling mashed fruit weight. Upon receipt of the finished product from persimmon varieties Zenji-Maru and Denau sugar washed, purified from the seeds of raw materials passed through the chopper, getting mashed mass. After that, citric acid was added to the mashed mass. Boiling mass produced to the content of soluble solids 60-64 %.
When processing persimmon fruit varieties Hiyakume mass boiled with the addition of mashed fresh lemon fruit with skin at the rate of 150-160 g per 1 kg. in this case, sugar was added at the rate of 500 g per 1 kg of fruit. Lemons with skins are used as a source of aromatic substances, since the fruits of The hiyakume variety are less aromatic compared to other pomological varieties. On the other hand, the addition of mashed lemons with skin enriches the finished product with ascorbic acid, P-active compounds, dietary fibers and other useful components.
Of the samples, the highest scores received jam from persimmon fruit varieties Denau sugar (with the addition of 0.05 % citric acid) and Hiyakume (with the addition of mashed lemons with the skin).
Confiture of fresh fruit varieties Denau sugar (with the addition of 0.05 % citric acid) has a beautiful color, attractive appearance and pleasant taste, due to the high content of sugars. Consumption of sugar for the manufacture of these products is significantly reduced.
Confiture of fresh persimmon fruit varieties Hiyakume (with the addition of mashed fresh lemon fruit with the skin) has a more pronounced pleasant taste and aroma, contains a number of useful biologically active components (vitamin C, P – active compounds, essential oils, etc.).
Tasting assessment of product quality was carried out on a five-point system according to the following indicators: appearance, color, consistency, taste and aroma. Based on the experimental studies, it can be concluded that the fruits of persimmon, not suitable for storage and transportation because of the softened consistency, overripe, can be successfully used to produce canned products such as jam. This makes it possible to significantly reduce the loss of valuable raw materials and provide the population with multivitamin and iodine-containing food.
Since independence, the area under winter wheat has increased many times in the Republic of Uzbekistan, the yield increases, the quality of grown grain improves. To ensure high and sustainable yields, improve the technological quality of grain breeders bred new varieties, carried out the delivery of highly productive seeds for import.
Currently, in the Republic of Karakalpakstan there are about 10 varieties of wheat, as well as many varieties grown in personal subsidiary (dekhkan) farms imported earlier, including varieties of local selection.
The wide choice of grades provides an opportunity of selection of high-yielding salt-and-drought-resistant, winter-hardy samples by high baking qualities of grain. However, an excessive increase in the number of varieties sown can lead to certain difficulties in seed production and farming techniques. Placement of several varieties on nearby areas leads to varietal mixing during harvesting, transportation, cleaning, storage, sowing of seeds, since most of the harvesting and sowing works in order to increase productivity are carried out by group (detachment) method. Also, when varieties are placed, the likelihood of different varieties being close together increases, which can lead to a certain percentage of cross-pollination.
In terms of agricultural technology, the annual change of varieties also reduces the ability of farmers to take into account the peculiarities of growing a variety, the accumulation of practical experience in the aspect of varietal farming.
The Karakalpak branch of the Uzbek rice research Institute is working on the selection of new varieties of winter wheat. In 2007, two varieties — Karakalpakstan-1 and Karkalpakstan-2-were submitted to The state variety testing. In order to optimize the number of cultivated varieties, the selection of a certain number of the most appropriate extreme conditions of Karakalpakstan, since 2006, 7 varieties of winter wheat have been studied at the experimental site. The sizes of the plots — 100 sqm to 4 repetitions. The predecessor is Fig. The yanbash variety is defined as a standard. The generally accepted in this zone agricultural machinery is applied. The following varieties are studied: Yanbash, Sanzar-8, PAL-Peach, Olmas, Polovchanka, Baby, Dustlik, Kuma.
As follows from the table, by the period of vegetation varieties can be divided into 3 groups. Varieties Olmas, Kuma matured before the standard for 3-6 days, Sanzar-8, PAL-Peach, Dustlik matured equally, and the rest for 3-4 days later than the standard. The best rates of overwintering were observed in varieties PAL-Peach, Polovchanka-79-83% against 73% of the standard. The highest yield was provided by varieties PAL-Pich (61C/ha), Polovchanka (57.6 C/ha), Olmas (57.4 C/ha).
Preliminary conclusions can be drawn from the research results.
1. In the conditions of the Northern zone of the Republic of Karakalpakstan, the most acceptable of the studied varieties are PAL-Pich, Yanbash, Polovchanka, Olmas; we consider it possible to recommend the production of an increase in their acreage.
2. It is necessary to establish primary seed production of these varieties, excluding the importation of seeds from outside. With the arrival of new varieties of winter wheat in the Karakalpak branch of the Uzbek research Institute of rice, work on the selection of varieties and the study of their varietal farming techniques will continue.
For many developing countries, the problem of iron deficiency in the human body, leading to anemia, is acute. The problem seems to be easily solvable: it is enough to enrich the iodized salt with iron. But it turned out that when mixed, both elements pass into an indigestible form.
Canadian scientists have spent about 10 years to solve this problem and have developed a practical way to add iron to iodized salt, allowing to protect it from reaction with iodine and keep the white color of the final product.
Already today in India there are two plants for the enrichment of table salt with iodine and iron. And tests carried out in a number of African countries have shown that such salt is stable in humid and hot climates and the population willingly consumes it. As a result, the number of anaemic children in these countries fell by 23% in 8 months. Iron fortification makes a kilogram of salt only 1.7 cents more expensive.
Vegetables belonging to the cruciferous family contain organic compounds containing thiocyanates and isothiocyanates. These are vegetables such as white cabbage, Brussels sprouts and cauliflower, horseradish, turnips, watercress, etc.it is Proved that the above compounds contribute to the development of goiter-goitre. Another group of sobenov are products containing substances progenitor tiocianato. These include corn, beans, sweet potatoes, maize. All these products disrupt the synthesis of thyroid hormones, exacerbating the natural iodine deficiency, of course, provided excessive consumption. Normalization of the level of iodine in the body contributes to the daily consumption of seaweed, squid, oysters and some other gifts of the seas and oceans. Iodine is also found in persimmons, walnuts (especially in internal partitions) and some other plant products.
If the methods of genetic engineering to bring plants that produce cellular matter-RNA, directed against the vital genes of insect pests, “protected” plants destroy any insect that tries to eat it-say Chinese biologists.
As you know, cotton is composed of a natural protective insecticide called gossypol, but, unfortunately, some insects have acquired resistance to this substance.
Scientists of the Shanghai biological Institute brought tobacco plants with RNA that turns off the gene of resistance to gossypol, and gave the opportunity to caterpillars of the cotton scoop to “eat” the leaves of this plant, and then let them on the cotton. The result was stunning – two days later the caterpillars died, poisoned by gossypol. If we consider that in China, the cotton scoop annually causes losses to cotton growing by a billion dollars, the successful implementation of this development in practice will be of great importance. The authors of the study intend to derive a variety of cotton with a similar RNA.
Specialized livestock farms have been organized in all regions of our Republic, modern farms have been built, breeding cattle have been imported, and areas for feed production have been allocated. If the breeders on farms Affairs enough, the field breeders in the winter mostly rest. But to provide farms with the necessary stock of juicy, green, coarse and concentrated feed now need to worry feed producers. The fact that they need to pay attention in the first place today on the pages of our magazine tell scientists experts. High yields of forage crops depend on properly selected varieties. For obtaining high yields of grain or silage in spring crops on irrigated lands now need to stock up on seeds of hybrid corn Uzbekistan 601 ESV – with good farming practices it can give 6-8 tonnes of grain or 30-35 tons of silage per hectare, and ears are milky-wax ripeness is 30-33 % by weight. The same hybrid is suitable for silage and in summer crops after harvesting wheat. For grain in summer crops should be used precocious hybrid corn Karasuv 350 AMV. This hybrid in all areas (except Northern) at timely term of sowing and good agrotechnics can provide reception of 5 t of grain from hectare.
This year, the seeds of hybrid corn farms in the southern regions can provide the enterprise “Shahrisabs don”, and the Central – Tashkent enterprise”Galla-Alteg”.
On land subject to salinization, it is better to sow sorghum. The Uzbek corn research station and its Karakalpak stronghold can offer farmers seeds of Uzbekistan 18 and Kara – Bosch sugar sorghum varieties. These varieties provide 30-45 t/ha of green mass.
Farmers who have planned spring sowing of alfalfa on irrigated lands should stock up on seeds of zoned varieties Tashkent 1, Tashkent 3192, Tashkent 1728, Tashkent 2009, Khiva or Karakalpak 15. It is better to sow it in early spring under the cover of spring oats Uzbek broad-leaved with the seeding rate: alfalfa 18-20 kg / ha, oats 40 kg/ha, or in April together with multi – grain sorghum Vakhsh 10 (the seeding rate of sorghum-8-10 kg / ha).
To obtain dietary feed, farmers will need crops of fodder beets. High yields of root crops provide varieties Uzbek semi-sugar, Uzbekistan or Ekkendorf yellow with a yield of 70-80 tons per hectare.
Many farms placed intermediate crops (winter rye, triticale, oats and their mixtures with feed peas) in their fields in autumn. Already now it is necessary to stock up nitrogen fertilizers in the necessary quantity that at the beginning of March when heat will be added and regrowth of plants will begin, to bring them in top dressing at the rate of 80-100 kg/ha of nitrogen. It is necessary to stock up and phosphorus fertilizers in the spring to feed the old alfalfa at the rate of 70-80 kg / ha (according to the active substance).
It is necessary to take care of the fields intended for spring sowing. Conditions of winter this year allow in the conditions of thaw or at the frozen soil to let out tractors on fields to make planning of dump and camber furrows. In some places you need a long-base planner or graders capital or partially align individual fields.
It is necessary to finish carrying out washing irrigations on the saline lands till spring, to clear intra-and intereconomic irrigation network, to repair water intake constructions and locks.
Mechanics still have time before the beginning of spring works to finish repair of tractors, seeders, to pick up to the sowing devices of exact sowing necessary disks for sowing of various fodder crops. Have in readiness cultivators, spreaders of mineral fertilizers and other equipment necessary for field work (chisels, microplanners, harrows, etc.).
In the past, 2009, when getting acquainted with livestock farms of Tashkent, Jizzakh and other regions, it was revealed that many of them have competent zootechnicians, veterinarians, economists and representatives of other specialties, but there are not enough field breeders. But it depends on them to introduce their own fields of science in the field of breeding high-yielding varieties, advanced technology of cultivation. In many farms there is no information about the level of soil fertility of the fields, manure from farms is improperly harvested and used. Therefore, prior to the spring field work, it would be very useful to organize seminars in each region to improve the skills of forage specialists in order to use irrigated land more efficiently in forage production, with the greatest impact, high yields of forage crops.
I. MASSINO, S. AKHMEDOVA
In the design and construction of high-pressure waterworks there is a need to solve complex problems of creating deep spillways that can reliably operate at pressures of more than 100 m and flow velocities reaching 50…60 m/s.It is necessary to reliably protect the flow part of the spillways from cavitation erosion, reduce dynamic loads on the elements of the structure, prevent the possibility of significant damage to the fastening of the downstream and unacceptable erosion of the bottom. A promising and effective method of solving the above problem is the use of flow swirling in spillways.
The discharge part of the spillway was considered as a cylindrical conduit (option-I) and a confusory section followed by a quenching chamber (options II – I, 2,3).
The confusor section, as well as the cylindrical conduit, works in the conditions of passing the swirling flow. Visual observations showed that along the length of the confusor, the structure of the swirling flow is leveled and at the end (=3.84) the flow is more transparent and stable. The swirling flow with the core leaving the confusor extends further in the quenching chamber, made in the form of a cylindrical section (variants I, II-I, 2, 3) or a section of a trough-shaped cross section (variant IV).
The nature of the change ( / ) shows that along the length of the considered confusers there is a more intense increase in the axial velocities and attenuation of the circumferential ones.
From the data in the table it follows that with an increase in the parameter of the twist flow, as a rule, the diameter of the harness increases.
Along the length of the cylinder, the diameter of the harness DJ decreases, which does not occur in the confusor. In the latter case, there is an increase in the diameter of the harness along the length by increasing the axial flow rates, leading to a decrease in the thickness of the water ring.
It should be noted that in the confusor there is a more intense change in the flow swirl parameter compared to the swirling flow in a cylindrical water pipe (for a section with 3.84 at the same flow rate QH=883 m3/s and ). This indicates a more intense damping of the twist in the converging section of the spillway.
In the presence of a confusor behind the swirler, significant piezometric pressures are formed on the walls, significantly higher than at similar flows in a cylindrical water pipe (at a flow rate QH=1273 m3/s . This circumstance reduces (or even can completely eliminate) the probability of cavitation on the surface of the flow swirler. And in a cylindrical conduit, the piezometric pressure drops sharply at the initial site behind the twist node ( =0.61), after which its decline along the conduit slows down.
In the presence of a confusor behind the swirler, the total specific energy of the swirling flow is as greater as the piezometric pressure than at similar flow rates in a cylindrical conduit at a flow rate Q=1273 m3 / s.
However, the length of the confuser energy reduction is not as dramatic compared to the piezometric pressure, which is associated with an increase in kinetic energy of the flow by increasing the axial flow velocities along the length of the confuser. In a cylindrical conduit, the total specific energy drops sharply at the initial site behind the twist node ( =0.61), after which its decline along the conduit slows down, which corresponds to a change in piezometric pressure.
In recent years, the requirements for environmental performance of tractors, off-road vehicles and other agricultural, road construction machines have increased significantly. The design of these mechanisms takes into account environmental requirements by improving the combustion process, seals in power and lubrication systems, reducing noise and vibration, reducing pressure on the soil, etc.
In this regard, their modernization should be carried out taking into account economic and environmental expediency, complexity, priority, universality, uniformity, competitiveness, international security requirements.
Replacement of diesel fuel for agricultural machinery should be carried out taking into account these requirements, and the use of natural gas in this case is the most effective solution to energy and environmental problems in the industry.
Diesels are transferred to the supply of gaseous fuel by the gas-diesel or gas method.
The gas-diesel method of feeding diesels is simpler, requiring minimal design changes and allowing to replace about 50 … 60 % of diesel fuel for vehicles. However, given the difficulties in managing the engine with a gas-diesel power system and the desire to completely replace the scarce and expensive diesel fuel, today the issue of transferring diesel engines to power only with gas fuel – natural gas or other type of fuel of biological origin (biogas) becomes urgent.
The bench and field tests of the d-243 diesel engine for the TTZ-80 wheeled tractor showed the features of operation mode control and the need for structural and technological fine-tuning of the engine and the tractor as a whole. The energy equivalence of the performed works is established at the corresponding expenses of 30 liters of diesel fuel and 24 cubic meters of natural gas.
For a comprehensive assessment of the proposed performance indicators (table.) three types of the investigated systems of food by results of which expediency of use of the corresponding type is established.
In conclusion, it should be noted that the transfer of diesel engines of agricultural machinery to natural gas is the most appropriate solution to dramatically reduce the negative impact on the environment.
In addition, the use of natural gas will reduce the cost of fuel (up to 3.5 times) and lubricating oil (up to 2 times), improve energy security due to the adequacy of natural resources.
However, the dissemination of this positive experience requires appropriate economic incentives in the form of concessional loans and taxes for individuals and legal entities whose activities are related to the development and implementation of equipment and technologies, the use and provision of services in the field of natural gas as a motor fuel.
In Uzbekistan, a huge area of irrigated area is subject to wind erosion. According to K. Mirzajanov, the main centers of development of wind erosion are the Central Fergana, Dalverzin, Golodnaya, Karshi, Chinabadskaya steppe and Bukhara oasis.
As a result of repeated blowing by the wind, the most fertile layer of soil was carried away, and mechanical changes in its composition were facilitated in the blowing foci. Eroded soils are poor in nutrients, which leads to increased subsidence of buds, flowers, ovaries and even bolls of crops.
Nitrification, ammonification and retrogradation of phosphates were studied on the fields of the farm “Dustlik” of Besharyk mist of Fergana viloyat on meadow saz soils exposed to wind erosion. The mechanical composition of the 0-30-cm soil layer is medium loamy, with a physical clay content of 38.8; below, to a depth of 60-77 cm, it is also medium loamy, but with a physical clay content of 42.4-42.8. Thus, as a result of wind erosion, the arable layer on the mechanical composition is facilitated, which leads to a deterioration of the water regime.
Soils slightly saline, sulfate type. The humus content in the arable layer is 0.5-0.6%. According to the content of nitrogen and phosphorus, these soils belong to the group not provided.
The results showed that the rate of nitrification and ammonification of mineral and organic nitrogen depends on the degree of erosion of meadow saz soil. On non-eroded soils, ammonium sulfate nitrification occurred rapidly. On day 7-15, all ammonia nitrogen introduced as ammonium sulfate was oxidized to nitrates. The biochemical ability of eroded soils to nitrification processes is significantly weakened. In this soil for 30-60 days contains less nitrate and ammonia nitrogen than in non-eroded (table. 1,2).
The soils of Uzbekistan, as it is known, due to the high content of calcium carbonate, are characterized by retrogradation of phosphates, the transfer of digestible forms of phosphorus in hard-to-digest and poorly available to cotton tricalcium phosphate. In the conditions of laboratory experience it was found out that the ability of meadow saz soils to retrogradation of phosphates depends on the degree of their erosion. More rapid and intensive retrogradation of phosphates was observed in eroded soils, less — in non-eroded soils (table. 3).
Thus, wind erosion causes great damage to soil fertility.
To eliminate this phenomenon, firstly, it is necessary to apply anti-erosion measures, and secondly, to use organic fertilizers, because they turn indigestible phosphorus into an easily digestible form.
The electric drive of agricultural machines works in adverse environmental conditions: high humidity and aggressive gases in livestock buildings, dust in feed mills and primary processing points of agricultural products.
The presence of aggressive gases and high humidity are the causes of oxidation of the contacts of the protective equipment, which leads to loss of phase.
The mechanical properties of raw materials processed or transported by agricultural machinery vary over a wide range depending on a number of unpredictable factors. This leads to significant fluctuations in the load of the electric motors. In such conditions, the probability of technological overloads and braking of the rotor of the electric motor increases.
In agricultural production, the main types of protection of electric motors are thermal relays, built-in temperature protection, phase-sensitive protection devices.
Thermal relays with bimetallic elements are the most widely used to protect electric motors from overload. This is due to the simplicity of design, installation and low cost of thermal relays. These devices control the amount of current in the phases of the motor winding. Produce two-pole and three-pole thermal relays. The latter is characterized in that they have heating elements and bimetallic plates in each of the three poles, are equipped with non-replaceable heating elements, have a modification with acceleration of operation in the incomplete phase mode.
Reliability of operation of thermal relays in the event of emergency conditions depends on a number of factors, the effect of which is random.
The built-in temperature protection device (UVTZ) controls the temperature of the stator winding and consists of three temperature sensors (posistors) embedded in the motor winding and the Converter unit. The main advantage of this device is that the UHTZ does not require adjustment and adjustment during installation and during operation, the reliability of operation does not depend on operational factors.
The fuz-M phase-sensitive protection device consists of two three-winding transformers, a phase detector with a cosine characteristic, an electronic reset control circuit and an output contact relay. The device controls the current value of the motor winding and the angle between the current and voltage. Each phase-shifting transformer has two primary current windings with a different number of turns included in opposite phases of the motor supply. This provides a defined specified phase shift angle between the secondary measured voltages. When the motor operates at all three phases, the phase shift angle between the measured voltages is close to 900. In case of phase breakage, the phase shift angle becomes 0 or 1800, depending on the phase in which the breakage occurred, while at the output of the phase detector the current will increase significantly and the output relay will work. In the event of technological overloads and rotor braking modes, the electric motor is switched off by means of an electronic overload control circuit.
The phase-sensitive device almost instantly shuts off the motor when the phase breaks and the rotor brakes, as well as a short circuit in the motor. This eliminates unnecessary heating of the motor windings. Reliability of operation at incomplete phase mode and rotor braking does not depend on operational factors.
The analysis of specific conditions of work of electric motors in agriculture showed that electric motors of some agricultural machines, submersible pumps, hermetic compressors of refrigerating machines, etc. should be protected by the built-in temperature protection, proceeding from a condition of normal functioning of these machines. At the same time, in some cases, the use of built-in temperature protection is associated with significant organizational and technical difficulties, which is a disadvantage of this type of protection. In particular, these disadvantages include the need to lay additional cable from the control Cabinet to the posistors built into the engine.
A. Rakhimov, T. Sultanov, M. Ibragimov
It is known that the soil profile characterizes the change in all vertical properties associated with the interaction of the soil-forming process on the parent rock. Virgin indelible soil developed on the loess, covered with dense vegetation.
Erosion has left its imprint on the morphological structure of the investigated soils: the soils of the slope compared to upland soil conditions are characterized by less depth of humus procrasti, approaching the boundaries of the accumulation of carbonates and gypsum, the mechanical composition of soils on loess lightweight, and soils on tertiary sediments – weighted, moisture contains slightly less.
The results showed that the soils formed on tertiary sediments are depleted of humus and nutrients.
Nitrogen in soils in proportion to the humus values was found in greater amounts in serozems on loess than in soils on tertiary sediments, and in soils the degree of erosion decreases from washed and unwashed to the average washed.
Studies have shown that soils on loess are characterized by large reserves of nutrients than soils on tertiary sediments. In reclaimed soils, the value of humus and NPK decreases along the profile more smoothly than in unwashed and, especially, washed away soils. In soils on tertiary sediments, humus and nutrients reserves in the profile are reduced more sharply than in soils on loess.
For a more complete study of soil fertility elements, the content of Cu, Zn, Mn of soils on loess and tertiary sediments, soils not washed, washed and reclaimed was also studied.
Soils formed on loess sediments are characterized by a higher content of protease than soils formed on tertiary sediments, which is probably due to the more extreme regimes of the latter.
In soils formed on loess, protease activity is determined in greater quantities in spring (0.062-0.132) than in autumn (0.050-0.128) mg per 1 g of soil for 24 hours. With the development of erosion processes and changes the enzymatic activity of soils.
Urease activity reaches the highest values in humus horizons – up to 4.75-6.67 mg / N-NH4 per 1 g of soil for 24 hours. Further distribution of soils depends on their genetic characteristics and the course of soil formation process.
The enzymatic activity of soils correlates with the following genetically stable characteristics-humus content, nitrogen, physical clay, density, pH. The greatest activity of enzymes is manifested in the upper humus layers of the soil. The activity of the studied enzymes is higher in loess soils than in tertiary sediments. Up to 20 amino acids were detected in the studied soils.
The results showed that soils formed on loess are characterized by large reserves of free amino acids-3.65-5.35 mg per 100 g of soil than soils formed on tertiary sediments-3.25-3.56 mg per 100 g.it was Revealed that the maximum content of amino acids in soils was observed in the spring. Thus, soils on loess in the upper horizons up to 3.35-5.35 mg, soils on tertiary sediments – 2.28-3.56, and in autumn up to 2.53-3.22 in the first soils and 1.29-1.88 mg per 100 g in the second, respectively.
I. Shakarov, G. Raimbayeva
Wastes at alcohol, beer and bioethanol plants differ in their characteristics, but the technology of their processing is the same. At the distillery, the waste is post-alcohol Barda, most often corn. Also, enterprises use wheat, rye or grain mixtures. Humidity in almost all plants for the treatment of such biomass is the same and ranges from 90-95%.
The beer pellet is a waste of brewing production – it is the grounds remaining after cooking and filtration of barley wort. The beer pellet is thicker in comparison with the distillery bard, its humidity is on average 78 – 80%. Beer (alcohol) plants also have waste that can be usefully processed in a biogas plant, this is the fermentation residue and yeast after fermentation.
In the production of bioethanol Barda is the same as after the alcohol treatment of biomass. The difference is that at the bioethanol plant it is from five to ten times more, which requires additional costs for disposal.
The main advantage of biogas plants in comparison with other waste treatment systems is that they do not consume energy, but, on the contrary, produce it. And it is enough to cover the needs of the enterprise in gas, and the surplus to be used for electricity production or car refueling.
The construction of a new plant can significantly reduce capital costs. There is no need to lay gas pipelines, power lines, pipelines to fields, etc.
Biogas plant occupies much less area than filtration fields. Due to the tightness of fermenters (methane tanks), the threshold of odors does not spread, and at the exit of the plant the organic content in the waste is reduced due to such factors as:
– accelerated fermentation of organic matter in the form of gas;
– separation of the remaining fermented organic matter.
The quality of effluents at the outlet after biogas plant improves. COD and BOD levels are reduced by about eight to ten times. Although the drains that is at the exit of the installation, can not be called. Because the output is a valuable product-high-quality biofertilizers.
Most often, plants recycle waste by producing dry feed. Such production is very energy-intensive and high-quality biofertilizers can be produced instead of feed. Such fertilizers contain a large amount of total nitrogen and useful microflora, which improves the quality of irrigated lands.
Waste alcohol production – the best raw material for the production of biogas, but there are features in their processing. Barda and pellet are characterized by rapid cleavage, which is why they have a tendency to oxidation. Therefore, the processing requires a two-stage technology and a hydrolysis reactor is provided, into which the waste falls from the pretreatment tank.
The test showed that the hydrolysis occurs in the reactor by diluting the waste with fermented biomass. This allows you to control the level of acidity. In the fermenter waste gets dosed without harming sensitive methane bacteria.
Thus, it is possible to achieve stability of the process and greater production of biogas with a high content of methane. For the best flow of the fermentation process used in the mixing of the substrate inside the digester. The afterbirth uses a vacuum mixing system. The biogas produced is collected in external gas tanks. The process of loading and unloading of biomass and pumping of the resulting commercial biogas can be controlled by one vacuum pump.
Mainly on the technological needs of the plants to consume the gas. If the enterprise uses adjustable burners, the biogas can be used without further treatment. If the burners are not regulated, the biogas plant can be equipped with a system for additional purification of gas from CO2 and fermentation by-products. Existing separation and drying systems for feed production can be used 100% for biofertilizer production.
Thus, if the enterprise is not interested in the sale or use of liquid fertilizers, although it can bring additional profits, additional cleaning equipment will be required to completely get rid of the effluents. The wastewater treatment system includes mechanical, biological and chemical cleaning modules. Additional UV disinfection is also carried out. Modification of the system may vary depending on where the treated water will be sent. COD and BOD levels can be lowered to acceptable levels for discharge into sewers, open water bodies or existing plant treatment facilities. Almost all biogas plants, without exception, are self-sufficient.
Sh. Imomov, K. Usmanov
One of the most important areas of the structural transformation of Uzbekistan’s economy is the agricultural sector, as it not only provides employment in the Republic, but also shapes its economic potential, is the main source of foreign exchange earnings, the main resource, which procures imports vital for Republic products. The basis of the agricultural sector of the Republic is its dominant industry – cotton.
A new direction in the development of the cotton complex is a consistent increase in its market infrastructure, especially in the sphere of foreign economic relations. To assess the processes of optimization of commodity circulation from the standpoint of management and marketing, it is first necessary to trace such an important phenomenon as the integration of cotton with other sectors of the economy. The concept of “commodity movement” has not yet entered the economic lexicon, theory and practice of domestic management and marketing. However, it is enough to give one of its definitions: “the process of physical movement of goods from the manufacturer to the place of sale or consumption” and it becomes clear that its use in the field of modern management, marketing and logistics is necessary and relevant.
The first stage of integration of cotton growing with the branches forming a technological chain on its processing, and first of all with industrial branches, is characterized by relative isolation of cotton growing and weak development of the connected branches. At this stage, the concept of commodity circulation was closed within the farms and only a small part of the produced goods acquired the form of goods sent to third-party consumers. It was during this period that the cotton-cleaning and oil-milling industries were gradually separated from agricultural production as independent branches.
In the subsequent concept, the nascent commodity movement in the spheres of cotton growing and industry began to develop, and mainly through the strengthening of the movement of goods of industries engaged in the processing of agricultural products. Began to form technological chains of goods: raw cotton, cotton fiber, yarn, fabric, product; raw cotton, seeds, lint, oil, soap, feed, canned vegetables. This period can be considered as the beginning of a qualitatively new stage-the formation of the cotton agro-industrial complex. A distinctive feature of this stage is the development of commodity circulation between agriculture and industry for the processing of its products. Especially intensively the commodity movement in the light and oil industry grows.
In the 50-60 years of the twentieth century, the concept of commodity movement has changed, its emphasis has shifted. This stage is characterized by intensive commodity movement in the sphere of agricultural enterprises and industries processing its products with industries producing means of production.
The situation began to change dramatically after Uzbekistan gained independence. This was the beginning of the implementation of a new concept of commodity movement in the cotton complex. The Central element of this concept was the need for privatization of state and collective cotton farms and industrial enterprises, their transformation into private ownership and, in addition, integration into international economic relations. This required, on the one hand, the formation in the Republic of fundamentally new market relations and modern market infrastructure, new marketing services to ensure the sale of agricultural products in the world markets, and on the other – a sharp increase in the efficiency of the entire cotton complex, modernization, technical and technological renewal of its entire production base.
If the first three concepts of commodity movement in the agro-industrial complex are easily tracked by the quantitative parameters of the development of commodity movement between industry and agriculture, the new fourth stage is characterized primarily by the deepest qualitative transformations of the processes of management and marketing. These transformations can rightly be characterized as a transition to a qualitatively new level of development of the agro-industrial complex. This process is consistently carried out in close connection with the political, economic and social transformations carried out in the Republic, based on the global social nature of the development of the cotton complex.
The current model of commodity circulation at its new stage of development fully pays tribute to the national identity, largely obscured in the past. The current fourth stage of the development of commodity circulation in the cotton complex is based on the theoretical achievements of modern economic thought and the historical experience of the market economy in many countries of the West and the East, and at the same time fully incorporates the long tradition of conducting a highly efficient economy, formed in the Republic. At this stage, the role of the agro-industrial complex in the economy of the Republic increases significantly, and this is natural, since agriculture, which is based on cotton growing, now employs 60% of the economically active population and produces almost 30% of the gross domestic product.
Sowing of winter wheat in the row spacing of growing cotton and the prospects for the development of seeders
The most promising way of sowing grain crops in the aisles of growing cotton is a narrow-row subsurface, allowing evenly to close up the seeds over the area of nutrition. At the same time, it is preferable to create sowing machines with a simple and reliable design, low metal consumption, universal for changing working bodies (coulters).In this regard, the development of a Coulter remains relevant.
Analysis of studies aimed at creating a Coulter for sowing grain crops in the rows of growing cotton showed the need for a preliminary study of surface profiles on cotton crops in the rows of 60 and 90 cm.This would specifically solve the problems of choosing the shape and parameters of the Coulter.
Preliminary analyses of the measurements showed that the depth of furrows in the rows varies from 12.5 to 17.0 cm. the Method of processing mass measurements of the row spacing surface profile, the study of the row spacing surface profile of growing cotton allowed to choose the optimal forms and parameters of the sowing machine Coulter. Based on the obtained materials, a slide-type Coulter was developed.
The Coulter consists of a slide 2 for forming, copying and compacting the relief of the furrow, wedge-shaped knives 3 with a seed duct located perpendicular to the lower side along the inclined surface of the slide 1, and a mechanism for adjusting its angle of inclination 1. The shape of the slide 2 in cross-section copies the shape of the furrow relief. The Coulter at the movement of the sowing machine by means of the hinged device falls and leans about a furrow bottom, slides on a row spacing surface, copying roughnesses of a furrow bottom.
Wedge-shaped knives 3 are designed for cutting and pushing the soil at an angle with the cheeks, the formation of small grooves, where the seeds are placed, fed by the sowing apparatus.
Wedge-shaped knives 3 are installed at an oblique angle on the lower side of the slide. This facilitates the free passage of clods and weeds. In the process of sowing, the Coulter simultaneously forms and compacts the soil around the perimeter of the furrow. At the same time, it creates conditions for the capillary inflow of moisture to the seeds from the underlying soil layers.
The slide restricts the deepening of the wedge-shaped knives, contributing to uniform sowing of seeds on the surface of the row spacing of cotton.
The proposed new technology will provide narrow-row sowing of grain seeds in the rows of cotton from 6 to 10 rows. Due to the preservation of the shape of the row spacing furrow, the useful area of sowing seeds increases by 9-22 % compared to the usual method of sowing.
For comparative evaluation of existing and experimental sowing machines, field tests were conducted in 2008-2009. Comparative experiments were carried out using a specially developed scheme of field experiment.
The results show (table.), that of the compared options the most favorable impact on the yield and the number of productive stems had seeding rates from 180 to 200 kg / ha.
Agricultural science is faced with the task of obtaining sustainably high yields with intensive use and increasing the fertility of irrigated lands, which is largely determined by the development of effective agricultural practices and the improvement of existing crop cultivation technologies.
Alfalfa among legumes stands out for its high feed value and ability to improve soil fertility. As you know, the yield of alfalfa hay and seeds in our country on average is not more than 100-120C ha and 0.5-1.0 Cha, respectively.
Entomofauna of insects trophic with alfalfa, as shown by the observations, is formed gradually, with the growth and development of culture.
Alfalfa of the first year of life was significantly damaged by larvae of silkworms and darkling beetles, various species of nodule weevils, sand medlyak, krovchik and some other species, they caused thinning of crops to 10-15%. Pests of alfalfa of the second year of life-bedbugs, aphids, Tychius, pachyderm, flower mosquito, phytonomus, etc. the most dangerous and mass pest of alfalfa is phytonomus.
The larvae feed in the leaf axils and in the apical buds, while the adults feed on the leaves. Harm from phytonomus beetles is usually small and is only a small part of the harm caused by larvae that develop exclusively on alfalfa.
In the conditions of the Republic of Karakalpakstan at larval density of 4-6 specimens per stem yield losses of green mass reach from 25.4 to 47.0%, seeds-38.8-92.3% (Shamuratov, 1990). Beetles of phytonomus, except alfalfa, are willing to feed on the leaves of the white Acacias, camel-thorns, beans and other plants. There were cases of significant damage to cotton seedlings, where the beetles fed on cotyledons and young first true leaves, and the eating of the apical buds led to complete death of seedlings.
Pest control of agricultural crops with the help of non-chemical means can not solve the problem completely. An important role in this belongs to the chemical method. Based on this, in order to determine the effectiveness and optimal rate of consumption of insecticide Karate against alfalfa pest complex, tests were conducted (2003-2005) in the fields of the experimental site of kkfilial Uz research Institute of rice according to the following scheme:
1. B / o control;
2. Karate 0.2 l / ha;
3. Karate 0.25 l / ha;
4. Karate 0.3 l / ha
The plot area of 25 m2 in triple repetition. Treatment of plants was carried out during the appearance of pests (beginning of flowering) with a hand sprayer “IDA”. Records and observations were carried out according to the existing recommendation for this zone (Tashkent, 1994). The results of the test are shown in the table.
The data given in the table show that during the years of testing the number of some pests of perennial grasses far exceeded the economic threshold of harmfulness. Under these conditions, the use of a complex insecticide Karate had a positive effect on reducing their numbers. Thus, in the tested doses, the biological efficacy of the drug was in the range of 66.4-98.2 %.
In this case, the optimal dose of the drug on crops of perennial grasses is 0.2 l / ha. Increasing the dose of the drug has a phytotoxic effect on the growth and development of perennial grasses. The increase in yield from the use of this drug ranged from 7.6 to 12.9 C/ha relative to the control.
Thus, carrying out protective measures on crops of perennial grasses ensures the preservation and receipt of a high and high-quality crop.
A. Kurbanbayev, P. Tarasov, A. Sagdullaev